Electric and hybrid vehicles: evolution and technological trends

Abstract:

A technological change is on course in the global automotive industry: the electric and hybrid vehicles. Considering the low cost relative of electricity in developed countries, the demand for these vehicles has been growing at high rates, pushing manufacturers to develop new architectures combining reliability and high performance with low production costs. Governmental pressures to reducing greenhouse emissions and the rapid technological evolution of high-density batteries have been contributing to this result. It is estimated that, in about ten years, electrified vehicles will account for more than 50% of world vehicle production. This paper analyses the evolution of the market and identifies the technologies already introduced in the world market, evaluating technical characteristics of architectures and the economic and technological factors that would be conditioning its expansion. While the car market is growing fast, the bus and heavy truck market is evolving much slower. In this case, some technological barriers still limit the electric powertrains cost ratio. These are: cost and limited storage capacity of batteries, the production costs of mechanical transmissions to meet the high speed and torque requirements of electric motors, and effective energy regeneration systems capable of reducing the energy consumption of these vehicles. The article also discusses the implications of this technological change to developing countries. On the one hand, these countries have numerous deficiencies in electricity generation and distribution infrastructure. There is also a limitation of capital resources to expand the genetration capacity of clean energy (wind or solar). On the other hand, electricity tariffs and capital costs are generally more expensive for the consumers which limit private investment in the vehicle fleet. For these reasons, the technologicaltransition to electric and hybrid vehicles is expected to be much slower in these countries.

Reference:
WEIS, James Manoel Guimarães; PEREIRA FILHO, Mário Leite; FERREIRA, Sérgio Inácio. Electric and hybrid vehicles: evolution and technological trends. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FOR MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY, 29., 2020, Cairo, Egito.[on-line] Proceedings on line.. 8p.

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