Inflammatory and functional responses after (bio)diesel exhaust exposure in allergic sensitized mice: a comparison between diesel and biodisel


Many cities fail to meet air quality standards, which results in increased risk for pulmonary disorders, including asthma. Human and experimental studies have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) particles are associated with worsening of allergic asthma. Biodiesel (BD), a cleaner fuel from renewable sources, was introduced in the eighties. Because of the reduction in particulate matter (PM) emissions, BD was xpected to cause fewer adverse pulmonary effects. However, only limited data on the effect of BD emissions in asthma are available. Determine whether BD exhaust exposure in allergic sensitized mice leads to different effects on inflammatory and functional responses compared to DE exposure. Balb/C mice were orotracheally sensitized with House Dust Mite (HDM) or a saline solution with 3 weekly instillations. From day 9 until day 17 after sensitization, they were exposed daily to filtered air (FA), DE and BD exhaust (concentration: 600 mg/m3 PM2.5). Lung function, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts, cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, TNF-a, TSLP) in the BALF, peribronchiolar eosinophils and parenchymal macrophages were measured. HDM-sensitized animals presented increased lung elastance (p ¼ 0.046), IgG1 serum levels (p ¼ 0.029), peribronchiolar eosinophils (p ¼ 0.028), BALF levels of total cells (p ¼ 0.020), eosinophils (p ¼ 0.028), IL-5 levels (p ¼ 0.002) and TSLP levels (p ¼ 0.046) in BALF. DE exposure alone increased lung elastance (p ¼ 0.000) and BALF IL-4 levels (p ¼ 0.045), whereas BD exposure alone increased BALF TSLP levels (p ¼ 0.004). BD exposure did not influence any parameters after HDM challenge, while DE exposed animals presented increased BALF levels of total cells (p ¼ 0.019), lymphocytes (p ¼ 0.000), neutrophils (p ¼ 0.040), macrophages (p ¼ 0.034), BALF IL-4 levels (p ¼ 0.028), and macrophagic inflammation in the lung tissue (p ¼ 0.037), as well as decreased IgG1 (p ¼ 0.046) and IgG2 (p ¼ 0.043) levels when compared to the HDM group. The results indicate more adverse pulmonary effects of DE compared to BD exposure in allergic sensitized animals.

TIMMERMAN, Tirza; BRITO, Jose Mara de; ALMEIDA, Natalia Madureira de; ALMEIDA, Francine Maria de; ARANTE-COSTA, Fernanda Magalhães; GUIMARÃES, Eliane Tigre; LICHTENFELS, Ana Julia Faria Coimbra; RIVERO, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira; OLIVEIRA, Regiani Carvalho de; LACERDA, João Paulo Amorim de; MORAES, Jamile Moreira; PIMENTEL, Danilo Augusto; SARAIVA-RAMANHOLO, Beatriz Mangueira; SALDIVA, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; VIEIRA, Rodolfo de Paula; MAUAD, Thais. Inflammatory and functional responses after (bio)diesel exhaust exposure in allergic sensitized mice : a comparison between diesel and biodisel. Environmental Pollution, v. 253, p.667-679, oct., 2019.

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