Biomarkers of leas exposure: platforms and analysis (Book chapter)


In this chapter, the main lead exposure biomarkers reported in the scientific literature are summarized, along with their pros and cons and situations in which they should be recommended. The population is exposed daily to lead concentrations present in the environment. Pregnant women and children are the
groups most affected by lead exposure and may suffer a number of health effects. Lead exposure surveillance is crucial both for environmental and occupational exposure. Knowing how to select the most suitable biomarker for each exposure scenario is essential to allow useful and effective biomonitoring. Different types of biological matrices can be used to assess biomarkers of lead exposure, including teeth, bone, nails, whole blood, plasma, urine, saliva, and hair. Blood Pb remains the biomarker of choice for recent lead exposure, while long-term exposure can be determined using the mean of serial blood Pb levels. Pb in teeth, and bone can be good biomarkers for investigating cumulative exposure. Pb in urine and saliva reflects recent exposure and has the advantage of being a noninvasive method. However, some factors which vary greatly among individuals need to be taken into account. Nails can serve as a good tool for initial screening.

OLYMPIO , Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; SALLES, Fernanda Junqueira; AKIBA, Naomi; LUZ, Maciel Santos. Biomarkers of leas exposure: platforms and analysis. In: PATEL, Vinood B.; PREEDY, Victor R. (Ed.) Biomarkens in disease: methods, discoveries and applications. London: Springer Nature, 2022. (Book Series home) p.1-26.

Access to the article on the Springer Nature website:

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