Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles


The mobility of electro-electronic devices and the actions related to the sustainability and to the saving of natural resources are what have pushed ahead the development of technologies linked to the production and to the storage of energy. Excellent examples of this would be the enormous usage of mobile phones, laptops and recently, the introduction of electric vehicles in the international market. Li-ion batteries are mostly used to meet the energy consumption of these devices due to their high electric potential and low weight. The development of Li-based batteries began around 1970 during the period in which Li-metallic anodes were used. These first batteries were not safe because the metallic Li is very reactive. In 1980, studies focused on the development of a Li-ion battery instead of Li-metallic and, in 1990, there were already cell phones using Li-ion batteries. Since then, efforts have been made to develop more versatile materials and compounds which withstand larger charge cycles. In 2017, electric vehicle manufacturers opted mostly to the use of LiNiMnCoO2 -based batteries, with Chinese vehicles employing LiFePO4 -based batteries. The development boundary of Li batteries is in producing an effective solid electrolyte to guarantee the safe commercial use of the battery with Li metallic anodes (as proposed in 1970) without the risk of explosions due to the form of a metallic electrode where the largest amount of energy is extracted from the Li element.

SANTOS, Célia Aparecida Lino dos. Bateria de íons lítio para veículos elétricos. Revista IPT Tecnologia e Inovação, v.2, n.9, p. 62-82, dez., 2018.

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