Análise de serviços ecossistêmicos na avaliação de impacto ambiental: proposta e aplicação em um empreendimento minerário


Taking into account the ecosystem services approach in the environmental project assessments and based on a case study of a rock phosphate mining operation, this study aims to answer the following question: which impacts resulting from mining most interfere with the local supply of ecosystem services? The method of analysis was based on a framework of non-monetary assessment itself based on the established patterns of the mining activity, as well as the ability of different land uses to provide ecosystem services. Among the 27 potential services offered by the local landscape, everyone is affected by the environmental impacts of the mining activity. Most interference occur in the services directly related to the welfare of the population involved, such as the provision of natural resources, information and opportunities, but the mitigation measures and social programs related to these services is not described in the Environmental Impact Study, which shows that the approach used by this environmental assessment method, commonly used, does not take into account all aspects related to the welfare of the population involved. Among the 32 identified environmental impacts, nine of them did not affect the provision of ecosystem services, and these impacts are related to socioeconomic aspects, which shows that the use of ecosystem services approach to environmental impact assessment, focusing on potential services offered locally by the landscape without taking into account the economic analysis of activity underestimates the interference in the social and economic sphere. The inclusion of the analysis of ecosystem services in the environmental impact assessment of projects is recommended, as the assessment tool based on ecosystem services allows us to identify synergies and conflicts between human activities and ecosystems, providing input to identify additional actions for impact mitigation and environmental compensation.

LONGO, Mariana Hortelani Carneseca, RODRIGUES, Ricardo Ribeiro. Análise de serviços ecossistêmicos na avaliação de impacto ambiental: proposta e aplicação em um empreendimento minerário. Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente – DeMA, v.43, p.103-127, dez., 2017. (Ed. Especial: Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental)

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