Kinetics study of carbothermic reduction of iron oxides contained in monazite concentrate for rare earth extraction


Kinetics of iron reduction process contained in Brazilian monazitic concentrate has been investigated in this study using charcoal and petroleum coke as reducing agents under isothermal condition. The reduction experiments of monazite concentrate-coal mixture have been performed twice at varying temperatures ranging between 973-1273K for 180 minutes. The materials are characterized by representative techniques like, XRF, XRD and SEM, in order to evaluate the particles morphology, ore composition and identify the main phase of iron oxide present. The isothermal kinetic study has been performed considering the loss of oxygen fraction from the monazite iron oxides calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis mass loss results; which showed the charcoal as better reducer and that the reaction follows the Ginstling-Brounshtein model for both reducing agents. The corresponding activation energies using Arrhenius equation are evaluated as 157.68 and 266.95 kJ/mole, for mixtures with charcoal and petroleum coke respectively assuming a mixed controlling process.

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